Consultant: Drivers of Violence Against Children (VAC) Desk Review & Research, Kigali, Rwanda, 20 days (Home Based) at United Nations Children’s Fund (Deadline: 23rd June, 2022)
📋 Job Description Details
UNICEF works in some of the world’s toughest places, to reach the world’s most disadvantaged children. To save their lives. To defend their rights. To help them fulfill their potential.
Across 190 countries and territories, we work for every child, everywhere, every day, to build a better world for everyone.
And we never give up.
For every child, Protection
To learn more about UNICEF work in Rwanda, please visit the country website https://unicef.sharepoint.com/sites/RWA/
How can you make a difference?
The objective of the assignment is to:
Conduct a structured desk review on the drivers of Violence Against Children and Adolescents (VAC/A), including social and gender norms related drivers and linkages with adolescent pregnancies, highlighting evidence gaps and needs
Develop recommendations and draft Terms of Reference to guide the design of future primary research on the drivers of Violence Against Children/Adolescents, with attention to the intersectional and gendered dimensions of Violence Against Children/Adolescents
Scope of Work:
The Government of Rwanda is strongly committed to ensuring that all children can achieve their full potential in a safe and protective environment. However, despite ongoing efforts, the level of violence, abuse, exploitation, and neglect experienced by children and adolescents in Rwanda remains a concern. The National Violence Against Children and Youth (VACY) Study (2015/16) shows that 42% of boys and 26% of girls aged 13-17 have been victims of physical violence, while 12% of girls and 5% of boys aged 13-17 reported exposure to sexual violence. The Early Childhood Development and Family (ECD&F) Baseline Evaluation (MIGEPROF/NISR, 2015) indicates that 49.3% of children were exposed to violent discipline in the month preceding the study. In addition, experience of violence is shaped by various factors such as gender – with girls facing heightened risks of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and boys being most at risk of physical violence – and age – with adolescents being often most at risk. Children and adolescents are most often abused by adults they know: one third of sexual violence against girls was perpetrated by an intimate partner, and 28% of physical violence against boys was perpetrated by an adult from the neighborhood (VACY study 2015/2016).
The VACY study highlighted emerging findings on how beliefs on violence, gender roles and sexuality play a critical role in either exposing children and adolescents to violence or increasing the likelihood of them committing violence. Those include beliefs around who holds the power within sexual and romantic relationships as well as within a household, all deeply related to prevailing social and gender norms. For example, six children / adolescents out of ten believe that women should accept violence to keep families together, and around a quarter of girls and boys think men should decide when to have sex.
Adolescent pregnancies as an emerging priority
Preventing and addressing adolescent pregnancies has been emerging as another priority for the Government of Rwanda. Although 2019/2020 data estimates that 5,2% of adolescent girls and young women 15-19 were either pregnant or mothers compared to 7,3% in 2014/2015 (DHS), recent reports highlight numerous cases of adolescent pregnancy particularly in the context and aftermaths of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many pregnancies are furthermore the result of child defilement, i.e., a sexual act involving an adult (over 18) and a child (under-18), in line with national legislation which considers 18 as the minimum age for sexual consent. Adolescent pregnancies are therefore closely linked to issues pertaining to child protection (CP) and Violence Against Children/Adolescents.
Since 2014, with support from UNICEF and other partners, the Government of Rwanda has been establishing and strengthening the child protection system at all levels, with a view of strengthening the prevention, identification and response to multifaceted child protection violations. This included efforts to strengthen the community-based component of the child protection system through Friends of the Family (Inshuti Z’Umuryango or IZU), as well as efforts to promote children and adolescents’ participation in preventing and reporting cases of neglect and violence.
Despite such progress, efforts to address Violence Against Children/Adolescents need to be accelerated and scaled up. In particular, the prevention component should be given priority, with more integrated efforts to address the drivers of various types of Violence Against Children/Adolescents, including violence against girls. In order to do so, a deeper, context-specific understanding of these drivers is critical. In particular, there is limited consolidated evidence on the social and gender norms that impact exposure to violence within the Rwandan context as well as reporting and service-seeking behaviours. There is also limited evidence on the intersectional dimensions (e.g., gender, age, disability) that increase the risk of experiencing violence.
In this context, UNICEF Rwanda is seeking the services of a consultant to support with current efforts to consolidate and deepen evidence on the drivers of Violence Against Children/Adolescents. In particular, the consultant will be tasked with:
Conducting a desk-based evidence review on drivers of various types of Violence Against Children/Adolescents (e.g., online violence, SGBV, physical violence, emotional violence) in Rwanda, including gender and social norms and intersectional factors impacting exposure to violence, reporting and service-seeking behaviours. The review will look at existing grey literature and peer-reviewed research on Violence Against Children/Adolescents & IPV that include components on Violence Against Children/Adolescents and its determinants in Rwanda, amongst other sources of evidence. It will provide insights into linkages with adolescent pregnancies and shared determinants. It will identify critical evidence gaps and needs.
Conducting key informant interviews remotely to collect stakeholders’ perceptions of evidence gaps and needs.
Mapping out programming lessons from the region regarding ending Violence Against Children interventions (prevention, response, and rehabilitation) that can be adapted in Rwanda.
Developing recommendations and drafting Terms of Reference to guide further primary research on the drivers of Violence Against Children/Adolescents in Rwanda, with a view of strengthening Violence Against Children prevention and integrated adolescent pregnancies programming.
Inception phase: Desk review of existing evidence on drivers of Violence Against Children/Adolescents & VAC/A programming lessons.
Remote interviews with key stakeholders (UN, NGOs/CSOs, government etc).
Finalization of findings report.
Draft ToR for further primary research on Violence Against Children/Adolescents.
Revised ToR and schedule.
Inception report with methodology & research questions.
Draft interim report.
Final report submitted incorporating feedback and recommendations on evidence gaps and future research needs.
Draft ToR submitted
To qualify as an advocate for every child you will have…
Master’s degree in Social Sciences, Development Studies, Public Health, Social Work, or any subject related to VAC/A or child protection. A PhD is an added advantage.
At least 10 years of relevant professional work experience, as part of international non-governmental organizations (INGO), the UN, academic institutions, research, and consultancy organizations
A proven track record conducting quality research including secondary research and literature reviews.
Recognized expertise in the fields of violence prevention and VAC/A including violence against girls.
Knowledge and experience of working in a developing country context.
Practical understanding of VAC / Child Protection / adolescent pregnancies programming
Additional expertise in one or more of the following technical areas is an asset: social and gender norms, gender transformative research, diversity/inclusion, online child protection.
For every Child, you demonstrate…
UNICEF’s values of Care, Respect, Integrity, Trust, and Accountability (CRITA).
To view our competency framework, please visit here.
UNICEF is committed to diversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages all candidates, irrespective of gender, nationality, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of the organization.
UNICEF has a zero-tolerance policy on conduct that is incompatible with the aims and objectives of the United Nations and UNICEF, including sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, abuse of authority and discrimination. UNICEF also adheres to strict child safeguarding principles. All selected candidates will be expected to adhere to these standards and principles and will therefore undergo rigorous reference and background checks. Background checks will include the verification of academic credential(s) and employment history. Selected candidates may be required to provide additional information to conduct a background check.
Individuals engaged under a consultancy or individual contract will not be considered “staff members” under the Staff Regulations and Rules of the United Nations and UNICEF’s policies and procedures, and will not be entitled to benefits provided therein (such as leave entitlements and medical insurance coverage). Their conditions of service will be governed by their contract and the General Conditions of Contracts for the Services of Consultants and Individual Contractors. Consultants and individual contractors are responsible for determining their tax liabilities and for the payment of any taxes and/or duties, in accordance with local or other applicable laws.
The selected candidate is solely responsible to ensure that the visa (applicable) and health insurance required to perform the duties of the contract are valid for the entire period of the contract. The candidate may also be subject to inoculation (vaccination) requirements, including against SARS-CoV-2 (Covid).
Kindly submit a financial proposal with proposed consultancy fees as well as a two-page technical financial outlining proposed methodology for consideration
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Mode of Application and any other relevant application information
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